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Current research topics
Active cell, tissue, and organism dynamics / Active matter
Intracellular organisation via phase separation / Nonequilibrium phase separation
Amyloid selfassembly / biopolymer selfassembly
Machine learning & optimisation
Quantum information & condensed matter physics
Active cell, tissue, and organism dynamics / Active matter
P. Jentsch and C.F. Lee A new universality class describes Vicsek's flocking phase in physical dimensions Eprint: arXiv:2402.01316 

P. Jentsch and C.F. Lee Can exact scaling exponents be obtained using the renormalization group? Affirmative evidence from incompressible polar active fluids Eprint: arXiv:2307.06725 

S.K. Anand, C.F. Lee, and T. Bertrand (2024) [Letter] Active Jamming at Criticality Physical Review Research 6 L022018. Eprint: arXiv:2309.08935 

A. Killeen, T. Bertrand, and C.F. Lee (2024) Machine learning topological defects in confluent tissues Biophyscial Reports 4 100142; Eprint: arXiv:2303.08166 

L. Chen, C.F. Lee, A. Maitra and J. Toner (2024) [Letter] Dynamics of packed swarms: timedisplaced correlators of two dimensional incompressible flocks Physical Review E 109 L012601; Eprint: arxiv:2304.06139 

A. Killeen, B. Partridge, T. Bertrand, and C.F. Lee (2023) Modeling growing confluent tissues using a lattice Boltzmann method: interface stability and fluctuations Physical Review Research 5 043096; Eprint: arXiv:2303.02210 

P. Jentsch and C.F. Lee (2023) Critical phenomena in compressible polar active fluids: Dynamical and functional renormalization group studies Physical Review Research 5 023061; Eprint: arXiv:2210.03830 

A. Cairoli, A. Spenlehauer, D.R. Overby, and C.F. Lee (2023) Model of inverse bleb growth explains giant vacuole dynamics during cell mechanoadaptation PNAS Nexus, pgac304; bioRxiv: 2022.06.26.497642 

L. Chen, C.F. Lee, A. Maitra and J. Toner (2022) Incompressible polar active fluids with quenched disorder in dimensions d > 2 Physical Review Letters 129 198001. Eprint: arXiv:2203.01892 

L. Chen, C.F. Lee, A. Maitra and J. Toner (2022) Packed swarms on dirt: two dimensional incompressible flocks with quenched and annealed disorder Physical Review Letters 129 188004. Eprint: arXiv:2202.02865 [Featured in a News and Views article in Nature and in the Physics Magazine, PRL Editors' suggestion] 

L. Chen, C.F. Lee, A. Maitra and J. Toner (2022) Hydrodynamic theory of twodimensional incompressible polar active fluids with quenched and annealed disorder Physical Review E 106 044608 Eprint: arXiv:2205.14384 

A. Killeen, T. Bertrand and C.F. Lee (2022) Polar Fluctuations Lead to Extensile Nematic Behavior in Confluent Tissues Physical Review Letters 128 078001. Eprint: arXiv:2107.03838 [Editors' suggestion, featured in Physics] 

B. Partridge, S. Gonzalez Anton, R. Khorshed, G. Adams, C. Pospori, C. Lo Celso, and C.F. Lee (2022) Heterogeneous runandtumble motion accounts for transient nonGaussian superdiffusion in haematopoietic multipotent progenitor cells PLoS ONE 17 e0272587. Eprint: bioRxiv 2021.11.19.469302 

C. Pirillo, F. Tissot, F. Birch, S. Gonzalez Anton, M. Haltalli, V. Tini, I. Kong, B. Partridge, C. Pospori, K. Keeshan, S. Santamaria, E. Hawkins, B. Falini, A. Marra, D. Duarte, C.F. Lee, E. Roberts, and C. Lo Celso (2022) Metalloproteinase inhibition reduces AML growth, prevents stem cell loss and improves chemotherapy effectiveness Blood Advances 6 3126–3141 

C.F. Lee (2022) An Infinite Set of Integral Formulae for Polar, Nematic, and Higher Order Structures at the Interface of MotilityInduced Phase Separation New Journal of Physics 24, 043010. Eprint: arXiv:2104.01581 

T. Bertrand and C.F. Lee (2022) [Letter] Diversity of phase transitions and phase coexistences in active fluids Physical Review Research 4, L022046. Eprint: arXiv:2012.05866 

A. Cairoli and C.F. Lee Hydrodynamics of Active Lévy Matter. Eprint: arXiv:1903.07565 

A. Cairoli and C.F. Lee Active Lévy Matter: Anomalous Diffusion, Hydrodynamics and Linear Stability. Eprint: arXiv:1904.08326 

D. Nesbitt, G. Pruessner and C.F. Lee (2021) Uncovering novel phase transitions in dense dry polar active fluids using a lattice Boltzmann method. New Journal of Physics 23 043047. Eprint: arXiv:1902.00530 

L. Chen, C.F. Lee and J. Toner (2020) Universality class for a nonequilibrium state of matter: a d = 4  ε expansion study of Malthusian flocks. Physical Review E 102, 022610. Eprint: arXiv:2004.00129 

L. Chen, C.F. Lee and J. Toner (2020) Moving, reproducing, and dying beyond Flatland: Malthusian flocks in dimensions d > 2. Physical Review Letters 125, 098003. Eprint: arXiv:2001.01300 

B. Partridge and C.F. Lee (2019) Critical motilityinduced phase separation belongs to the Ising universality class. Physical Review Letters 123, 068002. Eprint: arXiv:1810.06112 

P. Sartori and C.F. Lee (2019) Scaling behaviour of nonequilibrium planar Natic spin systems under weak fluctuations. New Journal of Physics 21, 073064. Eprint: arXiv:1906.03115 

C.F. Lee and J.D. Wurtz (2019) Novel physics arising from phase transitions in biology. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 52, 023001. Eprint: arXiv:1809.11117. Featured in the Thesis section at Nature Physics. 

L. Chen, C.F. Lee and J. Toner (2018) Incompressible polar active fluids in the moving phase. New Journal of Physics 20, 113035. Eprint: arXiv:1806.02548 

L. Chen, C.F. Lee and J. Toner (2018) Squeezed in three dimensions, moving in two: Hydrodynamic theory of 3D incompressible easyplane polar active fluids. Physical Review E 98, 040602(R). Eprint: arXiv:1805.07930 

D.
Nesbitt, G. Pruessner and C.F. Lee (2017) Edge instability in incompressible planar active fluids. Physical Review E 96, 062615. Eprint: arXiv:1706.03584 

C.F.
Lee
(2017) Interface stability, interface fluctuations, and the GibbsThomson relation in motilityinduced phase separations. Soft Matter 13 376385. Eprint: arxiv:1503.08674. 

L. Chen, C.F. Lee and J. Toner (2016) Surprising mappings of 2D polar active fluids to 2D soap and 1D sandblasting. Nature Communications 7, 12215. Eprint: arxiv:1601.01924. 

G. Pruessner and C.F. Lee
(2016) Comment on "Anomalous Discontinuity at the Percolation Critical Point of Active Gels." Physical Review Letters 116, 189801. Eprint: arxiv:1605.02855. 

C.F. Lee and G. Pruessner
(2016) [Editors' Suggestion] Percolation with trapping mechanism drives active gels to the critically connected state. Physical Review E 93, 052414. Eprint: arxiv:1508.06771. 

L.
Chen, J. Toner
and C.F.
Lee
(2015) Critical Phenomenon of the OrderDisorder Transition in Incompressible Active Fluids. New Journal of Physics 17, 042002 (Fast Track Communication) [Video abstract]. Eprint: arxiv:1410.2764. 

C.F. Lee (2013) Active particles under confinement: Aggregation at the wall and gradient formation inside a channel. New Journal of Physics 15, 055007. Eprint: arXiv:1304.5556. 

C.F. Lee (2011) Singular perturbation analysis of a reduced model for collective motion: A renormalization group approach. Physical Review E 83, 031127. Eprint: arXiv:1102.0407. 

C.F. Lee (2010)
Fluctuationinduced collective
motion: A singleparticle density analysis 
Intracellular organisation via phase separation / Nonequilibrium phase separation
C.F. Lee (2021) Scaling Law and Universal Drop Size Distribution of Coarsening in ConversionLimited Phase Separation Physical Review Research 3, 043081. Eprint: arXiv:2108.00357 

A.W. Folkmann, A.A. Putnam, C.F. Lee, and G. Seydoux (2021) Regulation of biomolecular condensates by interfacial protein clusters Science 373 1218. 

C.A. Weber, D. Zwicker, F. Jülicher and C.F. Lee (2019) Physics of Active Emulsions. Reports of Progress in Physics 82, 064601. Eprint: arXiv:1806.09552 

C.F. Lee and J.D. Wurtz (2019) Novel physics arising from phase transitions in biology. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 52, 023001. Eprint: arXiv:1809.11117. Featured in the Thesis section at Nature Physics. 

J.D.
Wurtz and C.F. Lee (2018) Stress granule formation via ATP depletiontriggered phase separation. New Journal of Physics 20 045008. Eprint: arXiv:1708.05697 

J.D.
Wurtz and C.F. Lee (2018) Chemical reactioncontrolled phase separated drops: Formation, size selection, and coarsening. Physical Review Letters 120, 078102. Eprint: arXiv:1707.08433 

C.A. Weber, C.F. Lee and F. Jülicher
(2017) Droplet Ripening in Concentration Gradients. New Journal of Physics 19 053021. Eprint: arxiv:1703.06276. 

C.F.
Lee, C.P. Brangwynne, J. Gharakhani, A.A. Hyman
and F. Jülicher (2013) Spatial organization of the cell cytoplasm by position dependent phase separation. Physical Review Letters 111, 088101. 
L. Pytowski, C.F. Lee, A.C. Foley, D.J. Vaux and L. Jean (2020) Liquid–liquid phase separation of type II diabetesassociated IAPP initiates hydrogelation and aggregation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117 12050. 

C.F.
Lee (2018) Equilibrium kinetics of selfassembling, semiflexible polymers. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 30 315102. Eprint: arXiv:1709.04684 

H,A. Davies, C.F. Lee, L. Miller, L.N. Liu and J. Madine (2018) Insights into the Origin of Distinct Medin Fibril Morphologies Induced by Incubation Conditions and Seeding. International Journal Molecular Sciences 19, 1357. 

L. Hong, C.F. Lee and Y.J. Huang
(2017) Statistical Mechanics and Kinetics of Amyloid Fibrillation. Biophysics and biochemistry of protein aggregation, edited by J.M. Yuan and H.X. Zhou (World Scientific), chapter 4. Eprint: arxiv:1609.01569. 

L. Jean, C.F. Lee, P. Hodder, N. Hawkins and D.J.
Vaux (2016) Dynamics of the formation of a hydrogel by a pathogenic amyloid peptide: islet amyloid polypeptide. Scientific Reports 6, 32124. 

C.F.
Lee (2015) Thermal breakage of a semiflexible polymer: Breakage profile and rate. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 27, 275101. 

B.J. Trigg, C.F. Lee, D.J. Vaux and L. Jean (2013) The airwater interface determines the outcome of seeding during amyloidogenesis. Biochemical Journal 456, 6780. 

C.F.
Lee*, S. Bird*, M. Shaw, L. Jean and D.J. Vaux
(2012) Combined effects of agitation, macromolecular crowding and interfaces on amyloidogenesis. Journal of Biological Chemistry 287, 38006. [* = joint first authors] 

C.F.
Lee (2012) Length distribution of stiff, selfassembled polymers at thermal equilibrium. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 24, 415101. Eprint: arXiv:1208.2906. 

L.
Jean*, C.F. Lee* and D.J. Vaux (2012) Enrichment of amyloidogenesis at an airwater interface. Biophysical Journal 102, 11541162. [* = joint first authors] 

L.
Jean, C.F. Lee, C. Lee, M. Shaw and D.J. Vaux
(2010) Competing discrete interfacial effects are critical for amyloidogenesis. FASEB Journal 24, 309317. 

C.F. Lee,
J. Loken, L. Jean and D.J. Vaux (2009) Elongation dynamics of amyloid fibrils: a rugged energy landscape picture. Physical Review E 80, 041906. Eprint: arXiv:0904.2505. 

C.F. Lee
(2009) Selfassembly of protein amyloid: A competition between amorphous and ordered aggregation. Physical Review E 80, 031922. Eprint: arXiv:0802.1985. 

C.F. Lee
(2009) Thermal breakage of a discrete onedimensional string. Physical Review E 80, 031134. Eprint: arXiv:0906.3754. 

C.F. Lee
(2009) Isotropicnematic phase transition in amyloid fibrilization. Physical Review E 80, 031902. Eprint: arXiv:0906.2504. 

L. Jean, C.F. Lee, M.
Shaw and D.J. Vaux (2008) Structural Elements Regulating Amyloidogenesis: a Cholinesterase Model System. PLoS ONE 3, e1834. 
Machine learning & optimisation
A. Killeen, T. Bertrand, and C.F. Lee (2024) Machine learning topological defects in confluent tissues Biophyscial Reports 4 100142; Eprint: arXiv:2303.08166 

S.L.
Law, C.F. Lee, S. Howison and J.N. Dewynne
(2007) Perturbation analysis of multiasset portfolio optimization with transaction cost. Eprint: arXiv:0708.1159. 

D.H.
Wolpert and C.F. Lee (2006) An adaptive MetropolisHastings scheme: sampling and optimization. Europhysics Letters 76, 353359. Eprint: condmat/0504163. 

C.F.
Lee and D.H. Wolpert (2004) Product distribution theory for control of multiagent systems. In Proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents & MultiAgent Systems (AAMAS 2004), IEEE Press, New York, USA, July 1923, pp. 522529. 

C.F.
Lee (2001) Quantum AlgebraicGeometric Codes. Part III essay for the MASt course at the University of Cambridge. 
T. Peng, D. Paramelle, B. Sana, C.F. Lee and S. Lim (2014) Designing NonNative IronBinding Site on a Protein Cage for Biological Synthesis of Nanoparticles Small 10, 3131. 

P.P.A.
Staniczenko, C.F. Lee and N.S. Jones (2009) Rapidly detecting disorder in rhythmic biological signals: a spectral entropy measure to identify cardiac arrhythmias. Physical Review E 79, 0119115. Eprint: arXiv:0810.1404. 

C. Lerma, C.F. Lee, L. Glass and A.L. Goldberger (2007) The Rule of Bigeminy Revisited: Analysis in Sudden Cardiac Death Syndrome. Journal of Electrocardiology 40, 7888.  
V. Lemaire*, C.F. Lee*, J. Lei, R. Métivier and L. Glass (2006) Sequential recruitment and combinatorial assembling of multiprotein complexes in transcriptional activation. Physical Review Letters 96, 198102. Eprint: qbio.CB/0605049. 
P.
Sartori, L. Granger, C.F.
Lee and J.M. Horowitz
(2014) Thermodynamic costs of information processing in sensory adaptation. PLOS Computational Biology 10, e1003974. Eprint: arxiv:1404.1027. 

F.
Peruani and C.F. Lee (2013) Fluctuations and the role of collision duration in reactiondiffusion systems. EPL 102, 58001. Eprint: arXiv:1305.4466. 

C.F. Lee (2010) Predicting rare events in chemical reactions: Application to skin cell proliferation. Physical Review E 82, 021103. Eprint: arXiv:1005.4116. 
I. Kunita, K.
Yoshihara, A. Tero, K. Ito, C.F. Lee,
M.D. Fricker and T. Nakagaki (2013) Some factors in adaptive pathfinding through transport network by an amoebalike organism Physarum. In Y. Suzuki, T. Nakagaki (Eds.) Natural Computing and Beyond (Springer, Japan) vol. 6, pp. 1429. 

D.M.D.
Smith, J.P. Onnela, C.F. Lee, M.D.
Fricker and N.F. Johnson (2011) Network Automata: Coupling Structure And Function In Dynamic Networks Advances in Complex Systems 14, 317339. 

D.M.D.
Smith, C.F. Lee, J.P. Onnela and N.F.
Johnson (2008) The Linkspace formalism for network analysis. Physical Review E 77, 036112. Epint: condmat/0608733. 
A.N. Malhas, C.F.
Lee and D.J. Vaux (2009)
Lamin B1 controls oxidative stress responses via Oct1. Journal of Cell Biology 184, 4555. 

A. Malhas, C.F. Lee,
R. Sanders, N.J. Saunders and D.J. Vaux (2007)
Defects in lamin B1 expression or processing affect chromosome position and gene expression. Journal of Cell Biology 176, 593603. 
A. OlayaCastro, F.
FassioliOlsen, C.F. Lee and N.F. Johnson (2008) Ultrafast quantum dynamics in photosynthesis. In Quantum Aspects of Life, edited by D. Abbott, P. Davies and A.K. Pati (Imperial College Press, London). 

A. OlayaCastro, C.F. Lee,
F. FassioliOlsen and N.F. Johnson (2008) Efficiency of excitation transfer in a lightharvesting system under quantum coherence. Physical Review B 78, 085115. Eprint: arXiv:0708.1159. 
Quantum information & condensed matter physics
C.F.
Lee and N.F. Johnson (2008) Spinglasses in optical cavity. EPL 81, 37004. Eprint: quantph/0412069. 

T.C.
Jarrett, C.F. Lee and N.F. Johnson (2006) Optically controlled spinglasses generated using multiqubit cavity systems. Physical Review B 74, 121301 (Rapid Communication). Eprint: condmat/0604623. 

A.
OlayaCastro, C.F. Lee and N.F. Johnson (2006) Exact simulation of multiqubit dynamics with only three qubits. Europhysics Letters 74, 208214. Eprint: quantph/0509022. 

C.F.
Lee and N.F. Johnson (2004) Efficient quantum computation within a disordered Heisenberg spinchain. Physical Review A 70, 052322. Eprint: quantph/0404163. 

C.F.
Lee and N.F. Johnson (2004) Firstorder superradiant phase transitions in a multiqubitcavity system. Physical Review Letters 93, 083001. Eprint: quantph/0403185. 

C.F.
Lee and N.F. Johnson (2003) Gametheoretic discussion of quantum cloning and state estimation. Physics Letters A 319, 429433. Eprint: quantph/0207139. 

C.F.
Lee and N.F. Johnson (2003) Efficiency and formalism of quantum games. Physical Review A 67, 022311. Eprint: quantph/0207012. 

C.F.
Lee and N.F. Johnson (2002) Let the quantum games begin. Physics World, the cover story in the October issue. 

C.F.
Lee, N.F. Johnson, F. Rodriguez and L. Quiroga
(2002) [Invited article] Quantum coherence, correlated noise and Parrondo games. Fluctuation and Noise Letters 2, L293L298. Eprint: quantph/0210185. 

C.F.
Lee and N.F. Johnson (2002) Quantum comparison machines with onesided error. Quantum Information Processing 1, 253256. Eprint: quantph/0207060. 

C.F.
Lee and N.F. Johnson (2002) Exploiting randomness in quantum information processing. Physics Letters A 301, 343349. Eprint: quantph/0207080. 
G. Kemkes, C.F. Lee, D. Merlini and B. Richmond
(2003) Stirling Numbers for Complex Arguments: Asymptotics and Identities. SIAM Journal of Discrete Mathematics 16, 179191. 