Welcome to the Universality in Biology Group website. We are based in the Department of Bioengineering at Imperial College London. We employ tools of statistical mechanics, soft condensed matter physics, applied mathematics, and computation methods to study universal behaviour in biological systems. Our research expands the horizons of physics and biology by studying biological problems that require the development of novel physics. We enjoy close collaborations with biologists (Department of Life Sciences) and bioengineers (Department of Bioengineering) at Imperial College, and biologists (Dunn School of Pathology) at the University of Oxford. Specific biological processes that we are interested in include protein amyloid self-assembly, cytoplasmic pattern formation, tissue homeostasis, and collective behaviour in living organisms.

News and Views
C.F. Lee (2020)
Formation of liquid-like cellular organelles depends on their composition. Nature 581, 144

Recent reviews
C.A. Weber, D. Zwicker, F. Jülicher and C.F. Lee (2019)
Physics of Active Emulsions. Reports of Progress in Physics 82, 064601. E-print: arXiv:1806.09552
C.F. Lee and J.D. Wurtz (2019)
Novel physics arising from phase transitions in biology. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 52, 023001. E-print: arXiv:1809.11117.
Featured in the Thesis section at Nature Physics.
L. Hong, C.F. Lee and Y.J. Huang (2017)
Statistical Mechanics and Kinetics of Amyloid Fibrillation. Biophysics and biochemistry of protein aggregation, edited by J.-M. Yuan and H.-X. Zhou (World Scientific), chapter 4; E-print: arxiv:1609.01569.

Recent representative papers
T. Bertrand and C.F. Lee
Diversity of phase transitions and phase co-existences in active fluids. E-print: arXiv:2012.05866
D. Nesbitt, G. Pruessner and C.F. Lee (2021)
Uncovering novel phase transitions in dense dry polar active fluids using a lattice Boltzmann method. New Journal of Physics 23 043047. E-print: arXiv:1902.00530
L. Pytowski, C.F. Lee, A.C. Foley, D.J. Vaux and L. Jean (2020)
Liquid–liquid phase separation of type II diabetes associated IAPP initiates hydrogelation and aggregation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117 12050.
L. Chen, C.F. Lee and J. Toner (2020)
Moving, reproducing, and dying beyond Flatland: Malthusian flocks in dimensions d > 2. Physical Review Letters 125, 098003. E-print: arXiv:2001.01300
B. Partridge and C.F. Lee (2019)
Critical motility-induced phase separation belongs to the Ising universality class. Physical Review Letters 123, 068002. E-print: arXiv:1810.06112
J.D. Wurtz and C.F. Lee (2018)
Chemical reaction-controlled phase separated drops: Formation, size selection, and coarsening. Physical Review Letters 120, 078102. E-print: