Welcome to the Universality in Biology Group website. We are based in the Department of Bioengineering at Imperial College London. We employ tools of statistical mechanics, soft condensed matter physics, applied mathematics, and computation methods to study universal behaviour in biological systems. Our research expands the horizons of physics and biology by studying biological problems that require the development of novel physics. We enjoy close collaborations with biologists and bioengineers. Specific biological processes that we are interested in include protein amyloid self-assembly, cytoplasmic pattern formation, tissue homeostasis, and collective behaviour in living organisms.

News and Views
C.F. Lee (2020)
Formation of liquid-like cellular organelles depends on their composition
Nature 581, 144

Recent reviews
C.A. Weber, D. Zwicker, F. Jülicher and C.F. Lee (2019)
Physics of Active Emulsions
Reports of Progress in Physics 82, 064601
E-print: arXiv:1806.09552
C.F. Lee and J.D. Wurtz (2019)
Novel physics arising from phase transitions in biology
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 52, 023001
E-print: arXiv:1809.11117.
Featured in the Thesis section at Nature Physics.

Recent representative papers
A. Killeen, T. Bertrand and C.F. Lee
Polar Fluctuations Lead to Extensile Nematic Behavior in Confluent Tissues
Physical Review Letters (to appear). E-print: arXiv:2107.03838
A.W. Folkmann, A.A. Putnam, C.F. Lee, and G. Seydoux (2021)
Regulation of biomolecular condensates by interfacial protein clusters
Science 373 1218.
D. Nesbitt, G. Pruessner and C.F. Lee (2021)
Uncovering novel phase transitions in dense dry polar active fluids using a lattice Boltzmann method
New Journal of Physics 23 043047. E-print: arXiv:1902.00530
L. Pytowski, C.F. Lee, A.C. Foley, D.J. Vaux and L. Jean (2020)
Liquid–liquid phase separation of type II diabetes associated IAPP initiates hydrogelation and aggregation
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117 12050.
L. Chen, C.F. Lee and J. Toner (2020)
Moving, reproducing, and dying beyond Flatland: Malthusian flocks in dimensions d > 2
Physical Review Letters 125, 098003. E-print: arXiv:2001.01300
B. Partridge and C.F. Lee (2019)
Critical motility-induced phase separation belongs to the Ising universality class
Physical Review Letters 123, 068002. E-print: arXiv:1810.06112
J.D. Wurtz and C.F. Lee (2018)
Chemical reaction-controlled phase separated drops: Formation, size selection, and coarsening
Physical Review Letters 120, 078102. E-print:

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